When trying to understand a system it is a good tacktics to apply different perspectives. This will shed light on the system from different standing points, from within different fields and though the eyes of a variety of stakeholders.
The perspectives can be grouped into three types:
Stakeholder and expert perspectives:
These include all users, operators, manufactorers, cleaners, directors, clients, experts, citizens, and others affected by the system or people with knowledge about the system. It is important ot include the affected bystanders and their perspectives.
In addition it should embrace others through representatives: These are children, elderlies who cannot speak for them selves, future generations, non- human beings and non-biotic issues.
Vertical validity of the systems approach is established by examinating the system on the Micro, Meso and Macro-level.
Horizontal validity of the systems approach is established by examinating foreground, middelground and background.
The four perspectives model:
The four perspectives model (pictured above) is a aimple framwork to examine a system. It provides both system depth and system with.
Vertical reach is described with the frog and the bird persepctives
Horizontal reach is described by the microscope and telescope metaphore.