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ZIP-Analysis is a simple method for developing GIGA-maps and to find potential areas for interventions and innovations.

ZIP stands for Zoom, Innovation, Potential. 

The ZIP analyses is conducted by marking the Gigamap with ZIP-points. ZIP-points are zoom areas, problems and potentials or ideas that stand out in the map. One can mark the points while developing the map and / or in separate analysing sessions where one investigates the map to search for these points.

The concept is tentative and there are other points that could be used, eg Pain-points suggested by Manuela Aguirre and Jan Kristina Strømsnes, risk points suggested by Elisabeth Skjelten or leverage points, points where a systems intervention would have a greater impact on the whole system (See eg Donella Meadows). 

Intersection points are where several systems intersect. They are like touchpoints between systems. (See analysis of a simple paper coffee cup as intersection point here >>>>>). 

Use the ZIP and additional analysing points in your GIGA-mapping as a starting device to a generative process and to ultimately find innovation in the map that is truly rooted in the system

Birger Sevaldson 2011-2012

Last update march 2017


ZIP1 web

Gigamap with ZIP points in yellow. (Click picture for larger version)

Lucie Pavlistikova, Martin Malek, Mirka Baklikova, Mariia Borisova, Georgia Papasozomenou, 2016


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Developed Zoom maps, problem maps and Idea maps. (Click picture for larger version)

Lucie Pavlistikova, Martin Malek, Mirka Baklikova, Mariia Borisova, Georgia Papasozomenou, 2016



Z :  Zoom is used to mark areas or points in your map that need more research. It is a reminder for you that you lack information and a initiater to make additional maps zooming into this area.

P :  P stands for potential, problem, problematique, pain point. If there is an obvious problem this is a potential for improvement. The Pain Points used by some are obviously P points but using the term potential is more neutral. There could be big potentials in things that work very fine. One could use this as a inspiration to improve things that work not so fine or one could improve them or link them in new ways. P stands for potential pain points problems etc. Typically if you spot a potential or problem but you don't know what to do with it its a P point. Also think of the P points as potential actors e.g. in the sense of "Enablers" and "Blockers". Also think of them as leverage points. (Meadows)

I : I stands for innovation and / or intervention. If you find something new you can do or you find a solution to a problem or you can link things in a new way by creating new relations these are I-points. Innovations are obviously new inventions. interventions are not necessarily new and innovative but they are actions that change the system. They are systems interventions. The ZIP-Analysis works nicely with GIGA maps to move from description to design.

When GIGA-mapping you perform the ZIP-Analysis by consiously searching for ZIP points. Mark with Z, P or I on the map.

How to work with the ZIP-points:



Identify the Z-points on the map. To develop a Zoom point further make a separate map with a very high level of detail. Often you need to get at additional sources, like web, library or consult experts.

Zoom map Stig M Henriksen hials 2016 s

An exampe of a Zoom map that is exploring technical and Human Machine interaction and interfaces. (Stig M. Henriksen et. al. NTNU 2016)



Identify th P-points or fields.To develop a potential or understand a problem make separate maps, consult stakeholders who are influenced by the problem. Back-check it to the system. Investigate singular problems and potentials regarding how they are related to other problems and potentials. Develop the P-maps to become problematiques or fields of interrelated potentials.


Markus Gundersen p point NTNU 2016 s

Investigation of a P-point. (Markus Gundersen, NTNU 2016)


I-points: To find points of intervention search for leverage points. These are points in the system where small changes will have a great impact. I-point check list:    

1) Find resolutions to P-points.    

2) Find and or create new relations.    

3) Look between the objects and be relation focussed.    

4) See if you can combine elements in the map in new ways.  

5) create new relations  

6) Check for synergies.    

7) Back check with the whole system to foresee and avoid unwanted and negative effects.